Spinning and Dyeing
The most used raw materials are sheep wool, camel hair, goat hair, and even silk. The final quality of the mat depends a lot on the quality of the material used. These materials can be used mixed or not.
After obtaining and cleaning the raw material, the next process, in manual weaving, is obtaining the threads (spinning) and its subsequent dyeing.
The yarn is obtained through a twisting movement of the raw material fibers. This movement can be done through the use of a spindle or a spindle. The spindle resembles a top; with the rotation of the same, the fibers are twisted, generating the thread.
The spindle has the same function as the spindle, being rotated through the help of a pedal, which gives it greater productivity than the spindle. In the images below, weavers using the distaff or spindle, in the preparation of yarns before dyeing.
Após a obtenção do fio, o passo seguinte é o tingimento. Dyes can be of natural or synthetic origin.
Until the end of the 19th century, the threads were dyed with natural dyes, obtained from plants and insects. The main vegetables used in the region were:
YELLOW – Saffron and vine leaves
RED- madder root
LIGHT ZUL – Indigo
BROWN – Walnut and chestnuts
From the beginning of this century, due to greater ease, time and lower cost in chemical dyeing, synthetic dyes were introduced, which practically replaced dyeing with natural dyes. For this reason, today, rugs that still use the traditional dyeing method are very valuable.